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source map  Sources have been compiled by Max Schefold in the commentaries in his 1965 facsimile edition. References in source file.

Franz Hogenberg's and Georg Braun's Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published in Cologne in six volumes between 1572 and 1617, was the culminating sixteenth-century city book. Rather than Münster's all-encompassing cosmography, the Civitates is an atlas of city views with brief texts on the verso of each plate. The scholar Braun and his engraver Hogenberg obtained their views in various ways. Unlike Münster, they could use existing city books to their advantage. They produced copies of the best views from numerous predecessors, including the Cosmographia, Antoine du Pinet's Plantz, pourtraitz et descriptions de plusieurs villes (1564), and François de Belleforest's expanded French edition of Münster's Cosmographie (1575). The most used sources are indicated in the map above. Hogenberg and Braun also relied much less on patrons than Münster, since most cities had already been depicted and published in print. Indeed their most enthusiastic patrons were located in the remote duchy of Hollstein, which had escaped depiction in earlier city books. However, the most interesting views in the Civitates were produced by one single artist: Georg Hoefnagel, whose travels through Europe I have traced here.

Artworks are in the public domain. Most images of city views used with permission from the site historic cities. All other content of this page, including maps and original illustrations, is Copyright © Jasper van Putten, 2014, All Rights Reserved, and should not be used without permission.